I have found a fix that I have found to have worked even after multiple restarts:
- Open the Settings app (the gear in the start menu)
- Open Accounts
- Click Sign-in Options
- Scroll down to Privacy
- Uncheck "Use my sign-in info to automatically finish setting up my device and reopen my apps after an update and restart."
- Restart your device
It seems that this setting was preventing my Gaming Services app from opening.
My speculation leads me to believe that this app provides admin access to the Xbox (beta) app.