I figured I would post my own thread after support couldn't help resolve my issue and sent it higher up.
I've received the status code: 80153410 for over a week now. It's been doing it for various purchases (ArcadeCraft, El Shaddai, Spelunky to name a few) and has caused me to miss out on a few sales. Any suggestions, such as clearing cache or redownloading a profile, have not proven helpful.
Both my account region and where I connect from are in the US. It seems like this is becoming more of a common problem with no solution, and Microsoft really needs to issue a statement about what's going on here and why it doesn't seem to be getting fixed.