I had to go back to the last restore point of 2019-07-11 to make the system run again.
Error 0x80242016 is shown for KB4507453. There is plenty of disk space.
By the way, the faulty installation affected the efi-bios, so that no boot device was available. I had to restart the computer twice, then the boot devices were found again. (I have a dual boot installation with Linux, so GRUB has to start as primary boot device. It is annoying that I must always change to the linux-partition as primary boot partition manually after the faulty windows updates. After a "normal" windows update, everything is fine, no manual action necessary.)
I encountered a similar problem only once, I guess it was 2018.
Someone else with the same problem?
Please inform me, when corrected updates are available.