Here's my problem:
When I signed up for the Outlook.com Premium, and entered the domain name I wanted, I didn't fully appreciate that MS would register it for me, nor the limitations limitations of this.
The big limitation is that I can't manage my DNS settings for the domain. This means that while email functionality works well, I can't point the domain to my website through an A record.
I'm hopeful there's either a domain control panel that lets me do this, or alternatively, that I can move the domain away so that I can control the nameserver settings to point to DNS that I can manage, to setup the A record.
From the FAQ, since Microsoft doesn't renew the domain for me on GoDaddy in year two, I would assume there's some mechanism to let me start paying for it, or move it to an account within GoDaddy.com that is my own, and gives me the management options.
I was also hopeful that the email address configured as the technical contact (*** Email address is removed for privacy ***) would in fact forward to my Outlook.com account or my custom domain account, but I haven't received the emails yet. I assume this would have allowed me to kick off a domain transfer process, and authorize it this way.