I've only recently started seeing this behaviour. I've upgraded to Office 2016 and am using Outlook 2016 although the previous Office installation is sill present. I can now no longer open either version of Outlook. I can't even open it in Safe Mode. It starts, loads, then crashes. I have seen other reports of similar crashes online but can't see a resolution.
Below is the event log message the Outlook crash causes. To note, Windows doesn't crash, just Outlook. It looks like both versions of Outlook cause the same event log message so I believe it's the Windows.UI.Xaml.dll component that is at fault.
Faulting application name: OUTLOOK.EXE, version: 16.0.4266.1003, time stamp: 0x55ceb433
Faulting module name: Windows.UI.Xaml.dll, version: 10.0.14393.82, time stamp: 0x57a55b79
Exception code: 0xc000027b
Fault offset: 0x00000000006d68ab
Faulting process id: 0x28e8
Faulting application start time: 0x01d205c0794c983e
Faulting application path: C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\root\Office16\OUTLOOK.EXE
Faulting module path: C:\Windows\System32\Windows.UI.Xaml.dll
Report Id: fd1a7eba-ccbf-4fce-93e9-1f8ef0d46a42
Faulting package full name:
Faulting package-relative application ID: