I have repeatedly had issues with DNS in Windows 10. It will work one day, and the next I cannot resolve any A record. a ping of 'google.com' returns a 'could not find host' while a ping of a google IP returns great results. Likewise, in a web browser, I can browse to a Google IP but not the host name.
I had the issue a yesterday, and refreshed my installation of the OS and things worked. I got back to work today (this is on an auxiliary laptop that sits at my desk for web browsing and personal... stuff.) and I am having the same issue. I have absolutely verified that it is not my network causing the issue.
I have re-installed the Intel wireless driver, which had no effect.
In IE, I select 'Fix Connection Problems' which returns the following issue that cannot be fixed: "One or more network protocols are missing on this computer."
I have found troubleshooting steps that included flushing the netsh catalog and other items, but nothing has had any result.
I am able to get connectivity after refreshing my installation. This isn't really a good solution though, as I have to re-install Office and other applications after doing so, each time.
I am on build 10061, but had this issue on the previous build as well.