After several attempts and fails, I've successfully upgraded to 17686.
Here's what I tried:
First I found some related problem: https://social.technet.microsoft.com/Forums/projectserver/ja-JP/a85491ae-b908-4828-8d90-9b83d030faae/10525-to-10532-?forum=win10itprogeneralJP
It indicates that broken Hyper-V prevents updating from 10525 to 10532. Then I considered if the problem occurs from Windows features.
Then I disabled most features and upgrade. It finally works. (Previously I tried to upgrade to 17686 but got 8007001f again)
Then I tried to reinstall Windows features. Then I finally found broken feature: Multipoint Manager and Multipoint Dashboard (0x800F0922 on install). Even the Multipoint Connector Services is fine.
I can't ensure, but I think this is where the problems come.
Usually, the setup procedure slows down at 9% then stuck at 12%. Then it automatic restart and shows restore the previous version. After the restart, 17672 boots up with info that shows the update was failed.
I'll paste logs below. Anyone could help?