First, the crash dumps: http://1drv.ms/1GJxoRC (sorry about the non-English (Swedish) in there)
In my admittedly experimental setup that has so far been working unexpectedly well and stably, I started getting BSODs on launching a number of applications once I had updated to 10041. It is 100% reproducible and says KMODE_EXCEPTION_NOT_HANDLED*. Every time I start Spotify (latest version), the crash happens instantly. In fact, I even get the blue screen when I try to uninstall it or download and run the installer (simple way of reproducing). This is by no means isolated to Spotify. Dark Souls II always crashes the same way about one second into the first screen, often with visual distortion, making the BSOD unreadable. I reinstalled Windows Preview to another partition, and experience exactly the same behavior. On build 9926 everything is perfectly fine, but once I upgraded that to 10041, the problems were back. I then reverted the update, and it's all good. But I can go back and test things, as one of the partitions i still on 10041.
Anyway, unless those crash dumps have all the info one could need, some context on my setup might be useful. I run the preview in a VM, using KVM on Linux, with OVMF (essentially turns the VM into a UEFI machine). I've been using GPU pass-through, passing my Radeon HD 6970 over to windows, plus a few USB devices. I thought that might have been the problem, but I've tried running the VM without passing it through, and the same thing happens anyway. Maybe that's not enough to rule it out...
The VM uses a physical SSD rather than a disk image, so I can actually boot straight into it when I boot up the computer! When I do that, I don't experience the blue screens.
* There's been one occurrence of SYSTEM_SERVICE_EXCEPTION, when starting Dark Souls II, but I don't have the dump from that.