I too get this error, with similar install results as previous posts. Initially this version came via MS Updates and when it failed, it took everything with it. I had to accomplish a full reinstall from disk to version 9926. After a couple of episodes
of MS Update, everything was back to normal on that version. Then I tried to do a clean install of 10041 from disk. Failed. Back to 9926. So I tried to do an in-place upgrade. Thought that was going to work, but no dice. Back on 9926. I have about 75
GB of disk space available and I not running any AV except for what comes native with Windows 10, so it's not an AV blocking issue.
Would like to move on to a new version but am stuck.
Updating from 10074 to 10300 failed with the above error but without any extra hints twice. The second time I disabled the Fsecure AV but it probably restarted after a reboot. I will attempt the update again after I uninstall the AV app and do some cleanup
work. Might take a day or 2. The update did get all the way to configuration so it was probably a migration issue.